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The Anglo-Ottoman Convention

An accord between Britain and the Ottoman Empire which was never ratified, the agreement provided basis for an independent Kuwait and the borders of the country. It also cemented British control by providing a framework for British policing in the Gulf. Under the agreement the Ottoman Empire dropped all claims to Bahrain, on the condition that Britain would not annex it.

The agreement provided two contradictory claims: that Britain accepted Kuwait as an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire and the Ottoman Empire accepted the validity of agreements which had made Kuwait a British Protectorate.

A map showing the agreed boundaries for Kuwait.
Source: Qatar Digital Library (loaded from Wikipedia's servers).
Kuwait has access to a large amount of coastline and its creation reduced Iraq's access to the coast, which caused long-term regional tensions.